Cholera Prevention and Control: Understanding the risks and taking control

Cholera Prevention and Control: Understanding the risks and taking control

Cholera Prevention and Control Understanding the risks and taking control

Cholera is a food and waterborne disease caused by ingesting Vibrio cholerae, which contaminates water and food. Contamination can occur at the source, during transportation or storage, and even through food prepared with contaminated water or handled by filthy hands. This disease is a significant public health concern, particularly in Bayelsa, Zamfara, Abia, Cross River, Bauchi, Delta, Katsina, Imo, Nasarawa and Lagos States.


Who is at Risk?

  • People of all ages living in places with limited access to clean water and poor sanitation
  • Those living in slum areas with inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure
  • Rural communities relying on surface water or unsafe piped or borehole water
  • People consuming contaminated food or fruits without proper washing and cooking.
  • Healthcare workers and caregivers who provide direct patient care without standard precautions.
  • Relatives caring for sick people with cholera at home



Symptoms include a sudden onset of acute, profuse, painless, watery diarrhoea, with or without vomiting. In severe cases, it may be associated with nausea, profuse vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, severe cases can lead to death within hours due to dehydration. However, most infected people (about 80%) may only show mild or no symptoms. 



Treatment involves prompt administration of oral rehydration solution and appropriate antibiotics. If detected early, most infected people can be treated successfully.

In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary to replace lost fluids and electrolytes rapidly.



Cholera can be prevented by ensuring access to safe drinking water, proper sanitation, and good hygiene practices, including handwashing. Avoid raw fruits and vegetables, food from street vendors, and raw or undercooked seafood. Properly dispose of refuse and human waste, and avoid open defecation.


To reduce the risk of cholera:

  • Ensure that water is boiled and stored in a clean and covered container before drinking
  • Practice good personal hand hygiene by washing your hands frequently with soap under clean running water
  • Ensure that food is well-cooked before consumption
  • Only consume raw food such as fruits and vegetables after washing thoroughly with safe water
  • Avoid open defecation and indiscriminate refuse dumping
  • Seek medical attention immediately if experiencing sudden watery diarrhoea


At Duchess International Hospital, we are committed to providing quality healthcare services and educating our patients on disease prevention and control. Visit our hospital today for expert medical advice and care.

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